But many of them encountered difficulties in managing aging technology companies. Of those women, only Ms. Catz, Ms. Hood and Ms. Porat remain in office.
“The pace of progress for women leaders in Silicon Valley has been beyond disappointing,” said Nicole Wong, the former Obama administration deputy chief technology officer and a former Twitter executive. “It makes the commitments tech leaders made around racial and gender diversity in 2014 look performant.”
In 2017, stories from sexual harassment by powerful men in Silicon Valley became part of the #MeToo movement. That year, a group of female investors founded All Raise.
In 2018, California passed a law requiring publicly traded companies to have at least one female chairman of the board, which has led to numerous women joining its boards of directors. (A judge in California overturned the law last month; the state has said it will appeal the ruling.) Another new law, passed last year, the Silenced No More Actprovides legal protection to people who speak publicly about discrimination or harassment they have experienced at work.
Women in tech have continued to speak out about unfair treatment. In 2020, Mrs. Brougher won a $22.5 million settlement from Pinterest for discrimination and retaliation. a discrimination lawsuit by Emily Kramerthe former chief marketing officer at financial start-up Carta, is making his way through the courts.
There are some signs of progress. Over the past five years, Katrina Lake of Stitch Fix, Julie Wainwright of The RealReal, Jennifer Hyman of Rent the Runway, and Whitney Wolfe Herd of Bumble have made public the companies they founded. And following in Ms. Sandberg’s footsteps, female Chief Operating Officers are now more prevalent in tech. They include Ms. Choi at Coinbase, Gwynne Shotwell at SpaceX, and Jen Wong at Reddit.
At Meta, Ms. Sandberg hired and promoted women, such as Marne Levine, the chief business officer, and Lori Goler, the chief of human resources and personnel. The percentage of women in Meta’s management with a title of director or higher increased to 35 percent in 2021, from 30 percent in 2018, according to the company’s data.
Meta also developed women who now lead other tech companies, including Ms. Simo, who previously oversaw the main Facebook app. Becoming CEO of Instacart last year.